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TQC, TQM and Others

TQC stands for "Total Quality Control." TQM stands for "Total Quality Management."

There are various definitions of TQC and TQM. The large category of them are Japanese TQC, Japanese TQM, USA's TQC and USA' TQM.


The difference of TQC and TQM is often explained the difference of "Control" and "Management." But I think the larger difference is the meaning of "Quality."

"Quality Control" has been translated into "Hin-sitsu Kanri" in Japan. In this translation,
"Quality = Product Quality."

"Quality" also means the quality of management."

By the way,
"Quality = Product Quality and Service Quality (related to products)."


The main area of quality control is the inspection process because it is important to prevent bad products out of the factory.

Next, the process previous of the inspection was thought as important. It is SPC .

By the way, the quality of the products is not only the quality of itself but also the cost, delivery and other services. So A.V. Feigenbaum developed the method to maximize the those performance. This is USA's TQC.

This site has the TQC page to explain the USA's TQC.

Japanese TQC

Japanese TQC is a movement to reduce the problems of the job. It is not for the profit of the company and localization

Japanese TQC says that "corporate-wide activity is important" and "All section should participate the activity. But it is not only for the products


"TQM" is made in USA. It is the improved version of Japanese TQC.

USA's TQM was made to do the Japanese way that all workers aggressively improve the job.

Six Sigma

"Six Sigma" is the name of activity to reduce large dispersion. Six sigma ( 6 times of standard deviation ) is a target to improve.

It is made in USA. And the reference was Japanese TQC. Japanese KAIZEN is a bottom-up approach. But six sigma is top-down approach.

Six sigma has methods to improve the business. One of them is SPC . And another one is DMAIC (a process method).

Six sigma also has the system of education in the company.

Japanese TQM

In 1996, the name "TQC" was changed into "TQM" in Japan.

TQC had bad points. Those are effectiveness of TQC, domineering attitude of TQC teachers and extreme activities. These points are introduced by some books in 1980s.

And ISO9001 was a threat because TQC was not systematic way.

The name "TQC" was changed. But the contents of TQC was not changed. Even now many people understand that contents of TQC and TQM are same.

Some people try to define the contents of Japanese TQM to exceed the USA's TQM and ISO9001.

Selection of Methods

Tools of Data Science (G7, W7, M7)

TQC, TQM, Six-Sigma and Others



"TQM practices and organizational culture :Japanese versus American perspectives", Jonathan W. Pinner ,UMI, 2004
TQM Dimensions are
Management Support, Customers, Improvement, Supervision, Supplier Relationship, Use of Data, Employee Suggestions
And Organization Culture Dimensions are
Social Cohesion, Innovation, Trust, Communication and Job Challenge.
This book compares each factor between USA and Japan.

"TQM America :how America's most successful companies profit from total quality management", Eric E. Anschutz,McGuinn & McGuire, 1995
Japanese words, KAIZEN, KANSEI and HOSHIN appears in this book. The author added concept on TQM-J.
Reengineering is added to KAIZEN.
Vision is added to HOSHIN
Leadership is added to MANAGEMENT.
Benchmarking is the method to find target of KAIZEN.

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