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Philosophy is a field that tries to explain in words something that is absolute in the world.

From the standpoint of semiotics , it seems to be a field that considers the meaning of concrete symbols.

Philosophy, how to clarify the reason of things

It seems that the principle of things treated in philosophy is generally "what can be expressed in language". Language is not only written, but also includes logical expressions.

Logic is closely related to mathematics, but in the case of the reason of things that can be expressed in mathematical formulas, such as the "law of universal gravitation", it is not expressed in mathematical formulas, but expressed in language.

Structuralism and Poststructuralism

Structuralism believes that there is some kind of universal structure within which human society is built. Based on that premise, I try to think in such a way that the action is this.

The idea before structuralism is the idea that "individuals have independence. They can decide their own affairs freely."

It seems that the point of structuralism is that "there is really no freedom."

Poststructuralism begins by denying the uniform way of thinking found in structuralism. It is a way of thinking that recognizes diversity, but because of diversity, it seems that some thoughts do not come together.

Denial of the major premise of philosophy by philosophy. And to Analytic Philosophy

The fields of phenomenology, logical philosophy, and hermeneutics were born in the context of traditional philosophy. Each pursues a traditional philosophical approach to researching their respective subjects. As a result, we have come to the conclusion that the major premise of traditional philosophy, which believes that there is something absolute common to all human beings, is actually not the case. Based on this idea, the position of analytic philosophy was born.

From Phenomenology to Analytic Philosophy

Phenomenology is a branch of traditional philosophy pioneered by Husserl. In traditional philosophical research, we come to the idea that reality is the experience we know through our perception.

I have a way of thinking that eliminates the need to think, "Who is saying it correctly?" This idea is directly related to analytic philosophy.

In traditional philosophy, phenomenology is sometimes positioned as an academic field of the past, but I believe that it is a field that is still active today.

From Logical Philosophy to Analytic Philosophy

Philosophy of logic is a branch of traditional philosophy pioneered by Wittgenstein. We pursue the "logic" that is the process by which people think about things.

According to logical philosophy, what traditional philosophy is doing is only logically operating based on what words people use and how they are used. It was shown that it was not meant to come out with something like that.

Logical philosophy is also connected to analytic philosophy in that it does not get hung up on something ultimate and that it organizes the way words are used.

Rejection of major premises of philosophy by cognitive psychology and developmental psychology

In traditional philosophy, we think that the image of what we think of as "XX" is the same as that of others. There is no particular problem if this "XX" is something that everyone has the same name like "cup", but if it is something like "I" or "existence", there is a philosophical argument. has become

However, as is said in Cognitive Psychology and developmental psychology, words that represent familiar objects such as "cup" and "apple" are memorized using the five senses. Words and objects are connected. If you are taught "koppu", you will remember "koppu".

It is difficult to remember the name of the ``I'' that is preferred in philosophy by associating it with the object in front of us. learn something The examples that we experience differ from person to person, and that is the reason for the diversity of the concept of "I."

From the standpoint of cognitive and developmental psychology, it is unreasonable for the traditional philosophical position to assume that everyone has the same meaning of XX On the other hand, the position of analytic philosophy is very natural.

By the way, in philosophy, there is also a debate such as "Is a cup a cup?" It is an unnecessary way of thinking for the time being in everyday life, but it seems to be effective in creating new hypotheses beyond the scope of common sense.


It was Heidegger who raised the question, "What is 'Existent'?"

Heidegger was originally a disciple of Husserl, and after studying phenomenology, he came up with an ontology.

Due to such a background and the strong impression of ontology, it seems that many people have the perception that the content of phenomenology is incorrect and that ontology is correct.

On the other hand, according to the author's understanding, ontology seems to deny the phenomenology's assertion that the objects dealt with by phenomenology are indeterminate, and insist that they are definite. can be seen in In other words, it can be said that "I tried to explain the objects dealt with by phenomenology from the standpoint of traditional philosophy."

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